Watch the Guide Tone/Root Structures online guitar lesson by Brad Carlton from Guitar Lab: ii V I Options
The first thing I want to address is chart number one. These are your enharmonics which simply means pitches that are spelled differently or numbered differently but sound the same. The reason it's important for you to know this information is that in a scale formula you will number notes from one to eight (eight being the octave). When you use chord symbols, the various extensions and altered tones may extend up into the second octave. Make sure that you know these enharmonics so you don't get confused with any of the analyses of the chord voicings. There are times when I may number notes in the first octave and other times in the second octave.
This lesson focuses on guide tone/root structures. Throughout this group of lessons we will be in the key of D and will be using the A and C forms of the CAGED system for our I chord location. From there we will then move as far down the neck and up the neck as physically possible to capture extensions and altered tones.
The beauty of these guide tone root structures is that they clearly outline the three different qualities of chords that make up the ii V I progression. Not only are they useful for comping the when you need to play in a rather lean fashion, but they provide a foundation for extended harmony.
This lesson will use diagrams one through six and examples one through five.