Watch the Accompaniment Figures online guitar lesson by Angus Clark from Hard Rock Survival Guide: Rhythm
Throughout these concepts there have been examples that feature patterns. Let's separate that concept out. Rock rhythm playing is all about repeated figures. Repeated rhythmic, harmonic, and melodic motives. On any given gig where you have to arrange your part, or if you are writing a song, you have to find your pattern, the same way the drummer does. Some forms of music have strict roles, in rock everything is a bit more up for grabs.
If you look at Ritchie Blackmore for instance, on "Smoke on the Water", "Man on the Silver Mountain", and "Starstruck", a bulk of the rhythm playing is just alternating octaves, or root - fifth - octave - like this.
Papa Roach's big hit "Last Resort" featured what's called an ostinato pattern, which is a repeated line of single notes that creates a rhythm part.
Guys like Tool, Breaking Benjamin, use repeated syncopated figures to create a groove.