Watch the Phrygian: Dom. Over II-V-I online guitar lesson by Kenny Wessel from Shades of Jazz
The vamp I'm playing over in this segment is: 1 bar of A-7, 1 bar of D7b9b13, and 2 bars of Gmaj7. I'm playing an A dorian mode over the A-7 chord, to a D phrygian mode over the D7b9 chord, and resolving to a G Ionian (major) scale. I'm demonstrating how you can take an A dorian idea and move that same idea up 3 frets on the neck and play that over the D7b9 chord, and resolve to G major for the last chord. This works because A dorian, up 3 frets (or a minor third), is C dorian. C dorian, as we know, is the second mode of the Bbmajor scale, and D Phrygian is the third mode of the Bb major scale. So what do they all have in common? Bb major! All three scales/modes (C dorian, D Phrygian and Bb major) share the same 7 notes. This is a very simple way to create some altered dominant harmony. We're taking a dorian idea and moving it up the neck visually. Eventually, it will help to know all the notes and be familiar with chord tones, etc. but here is a quick way to get some of these sounds in your ear.