Watch the Melodic Minor online guitar lesson by John Stowell from Modern Jazz Improv
The best way to train yourself to recognize and articulate a specific tension or set of altered tones over a dominant chord is to place the tension(s) on top of the chord, and play the melodic minor chord/scale/arpeggio that generates the corresponding sound. This approach won't always work in a performance situation; If I'm comping in that scenario, I'll use the tensions over dominant chords sparingly and let the soloist determine the harmonic agenda. There are a number of other tunes besides "Yesterdays" that use dominant chords moving up in 4ths; besides the two chromatic options using melodic minor substitutions that I mention here, there are a number of other possibilities (i.e., A7/G mel mi, D7/. C mel mi, C7/C# mel mi, etc.).